Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax in animals and humans. The organism lies in a dormant state in the soil until introduced into an animal via, ingestion, cutaneous inoculation or inhalation. Once in the host, spores germinate into rapidly growing vegetative cells elaborating toxins. When animals die of anthrax, vegetative bacteria sporulate upon nutrient limitation in the carcass or soil while in the presence of air.
Medications for Cutaneous Bacillus anthracis
Review of Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) Studies for Dose-Response Modeling to Estimate Risk
Metrics details. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a spore forming and toxin producing rod-shaped bacterium that is classified as a category A bioterror agent. This pathogenic microbe can be transmitted to both animals and humans. Clinical presentation depends on the route of entry direct contact, ingestion, injection or aerosolization with symptoms ranging from isolated skin infections to more severe manifestations such as cardiac or pulmonary shock, meningitis, and death. To date, anthrax is treatable if antibiotics are administered promptly and continued for 60 days. In addition, antibiotics are ineffective against the harmful anthrax toxins and spores. Therefore, alternative therapeutics are essential.
The capsule of Bacillus anthracis, a review
Cite This Article. After the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis through the U. Postal Service in the fall of , many environments were contaminated with B. We conducted a survey of the literature that had potential application to the inactivation of B. This article provides a tabular summary of the results.
Objective: To familiarize surgeons with the specific complications of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation, and systemic infection with Bacillus Anthracis, which may require surgical treatment. Summary background data: The recent cases of intentional exposure to Bacillus Anthracis in the United States make familiarity with the basic microbiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and control of this disease essential if mortality and morbidity is to be minimized, particularly following mass exposure. Although the treatment of Bacillus Anthracis infection is primarily medical, there are specific surgical complications with which the surgeon should be familiar.