It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean ; to the southeast by Guatemala , Belize , and the Caribbean Sea ; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico is organized as a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City ,  its capital and largest metropolis. Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8, BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilization ;  it was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, most notably the Maya and the Aztecs. In , the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the region from its base in Mexico City , establishing the colony of New Spain. The Catholic Church played an important role in spreading Christianity and the Spanish language, while also preserving some indigenous cultures.
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By , around 65, Black Caribs were living in fifty-four fishing villages in Guatemala, Belize, and Nicaragua. Vincent population as "mere interlopers from Africa" who lacked claims to land possession in St. The Carib people migrated from the mainland to the islands circa , according to carbon dating of artifacts. He took ethnographic and linguistic notes on the native peoples of these islands, including St. Vincent , which he visited briefly. They imposed French colonial rule. Cardinal Richelieu of France gave the island to the Compagnie de Saint-Christophe , in which he was a shareholder.
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Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid , which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, and grand apartheid , which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised , ethnically diverse slave population. The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, , followed closely by the Immorality Amendment Act of , which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines. Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century.
Note: Varies by jurisdiction. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse , especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought. Manslaughter is killing committed in the absence of malice , [note 1] brought about by reasonable provocation , or diminished capacity.